Online Information Centre for Stainless Steel in Construction
Called an “Anchored Mirror”, public conveniences have been set up on the beaches of the Basque coast. Fully clad in mirror-polished stainless steel, the parallelpipedal building resists marine corrosion and winds. In the case of very strong tides, it is even submersible.
The Armada Platform is operated by BG Group and exploits three gas and condensate fields in the Central North Sea, 250 km east of Aberdeen. It comprises a four legged steel spaceframe jacket supporting a single integrated deck containing wellhead, process and accommodation facilities. The living facilities on the platform required extending to accommodate 59 personnel. Four blast and fire rated accommodation modules and two walkway modules linking the new modules to the existing accommodation were added to the platform in 2009. The structural cladding of these modules was corrugated stainless steel.
This resource is a case study on stainless steel fencing separating a swimming pool from the adjacent Pacific Ocean. It contains information and images that focus on the stainless steel elements, describing the design criteria and method, the construction and the performance of the finished product after construction. Also presented is a stainless steel selection criteria which uses the case study as an example, it considers: environment, salt exposure, weather, design and maintenance. Both grade EN 1.4401 and 1.4301 were specified in a highly corrosive coastal and hot environment. Grade EN 1.4301 which was used for the posts shows pitting and discolouration while the 1.4401 retains a smooth finish with only discolouration around the weld zones.
The floor-to-ceiling partition walls of a bank office are made from glass tubes. Arranged in a sinuous line, they are held in place by stainless steel profiles grade 1.4401. Despite their transparent character, the view is inhibited and confidentiality remains ensured.
This resource is a case study on the stainless steel exterior found on the Mapfre Office Tower in Barcelona, Spain, built in 1992 for the Olympics Games. The structure is located right on Barcelona’s coast meaning high levels of sea salt and moisture in the air make the area highly corrosive. Locally produced EN grade 1.4401 (type 316) was used together with high efficiency glass to create a distinctive look but also for durability. The study contains information and images describing on the stainless steel element, the design criteria and the performance of the finished product since construction. Also presented is a stainless steel selection criteria which uses the case study as an example, it considers: environment, salt exposure, weather, design and maintenance.
Designed by Coop Himmelb(l)au, the brand-experience and delivery centre “BMW Welt” involves a 16,000 m² roof entirely clad in stainless steel. The underside of the roof is made of 5,000 perforated stainless steel panels, each of them in a different size, which contribute to the impression of a “cloud roof”. Bead-blasted perforated stainless steel sheet provides solar shading.
This resource is a case study on the Bridge in Cala Galdana on Menorca. The study contains information, structural drawings and images that focus on the stainless steel elements, describing the design criteria and method, the construction and the finished product after construction. The main structure of the bridge is duplex stainless steel (grade 1.4462) and comprises 2 parallel arches connecting to longitudinal and transverse beams that support a reinforced concrete deck. Stainless steel was chosen for its corrosion resistance and low maintenance.
This resource is series of case studies around the world of different stainless steel building envelopes (facades and roofs). It contains information, structural drawings and images that focus on the stainless steel elements. The design, grade and finish specification and construction method are also described. Examples are featured from residential, research, education, administration and commercial buildings and leisure centres. From this selection of buildings, the grades used are: EN 1.4401, 1.4404, 1.4306 and 1.4301.
The Cala Galdana Bridge crosses the Algendar River in Menorca. There are panoramic views of this popular beach-side holiday resort from the 55 m span, 13 m wide road bridge. The main structure of the bridge is entirely stainless steel and includes two parallel arches, two longitudinal beams and transverse beams supporting the deck. Reinforced concrete makes up the abutments at each end, which sit on piled foundations. The bridge, opened in 2005, was the first stainless steel road bridge in Europe.
This resource is a case study on the stainless steel srailings and lampposts found in the Canary Islands, built in the 1980’s. The elements are located on the coasts, therefore are exposed to high levels of sea salt, splashing and spraying making the area highly corrosive. EN grades 1.4401 (type 316) and 1.4462 (type 2205) were used with a smooth finish in order to ensure the clean, modern look that possesses high durability with little to no maintenance. The study contains information and images describing the stainless steel elements, design criteria and performance of the finished product since construction. Also presented is a stainless steel selection criteria which uses the case study as an example, it considers: environment, salt exposure, weather, design and maintenance.
This resource is a case study on two housing estates that were renovated with stamped stainless steel facade panels. It contains technical information, structural drawings and images that focus mainly on the stainless steel elements, describing the design criteria, the construction and the overall look after construction. In this project the panels were made to various lengths to accommodate the building variations. They demonstrate good insulation against noise, heat and cold and have aesthetically transformed the estates.
An irregular, dynamic pattern produces a cascading effect reminiscent of a waterfall. A new technique called fluid forming is applied, which leaves no drawing or tool marks on the 1 mm-thin sheet of stainless steel grade 1.4301.
The new headquarters of the Chamber of Commerce of the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg was completed in 2004. It is located on the Kirchberg plateau of Luxembourg and comprises a fully renovated existing building of 5,000 m2 and new buildings providing an additional 20,000 m2 of office space. The new buildings form a succession of four distinct wings linked together by glass footbridges. They have a steel primary frame with glass and steel façades, and the floors are designed as composite slabs using stainless steel panels profiled in a sinusoidal shape. Within the composite floor slab, water-carrying plastic pipes are placed to provide heating and cooling through the exposed stainless steel ceilings, leading to significant energy savings.
16 artists’ studios at the University of Aberystwyth are clad with ultra-thin stainless steel sheet only 0.127 mm thick. The material was given crinckle-effect using a roller with large rubber knops. CFC-free froam on the inside adds to the structural stability of the cladding and provides thermal insulation.
This resource is a case study on the San Nicola Stadium, Bari, built for the 1990 Football World Cup. It contains information, structural drawings and images that focus on the stainless steel elements, describing the design criteria and method, the construction and the finished product after construction. Stainless steel is used for the main column and stabilizing structures for the staircase. A welded stainless steel section is also used to support the glass steps that cantilever out.
This resource is a case study on the Erasmus Metro Station in Brussels. The study contains technical information, structural drawings and images that focus on the stainless steel elements, describing the design criteria and method, the construction and the finished product after construction. The station has a fiberglass membrane roof supported by stainless steel cables and fixings which connect to the primary steel structure. Stainless steel mesh (grade 1.4404) also forms the inward curving side panel façade and the station furniture.
Stainless steel contrasts with floor-to-ceiling glass panes in the partitions and wood in the ceiling. Walls are clad in mirror-polished 1 mm stainless steel sheet. In addition to its visual effect, chequered stainless steel floor plate (1.5 mm) also has outstanding anti-slip properties.
This resource is a case study on the suspended Glass Walkway in the Basilica of Aquileia, Italy, built to allow visitors to view the ancient stone mosaic without causing damage. The study contains information, structural drawings and images that focus on the stainless steel elements, describing the design criteria and method, the construction and the finished product after construction. A stainless steel (grade 1.4401) support system consisting of a stirrup frame composed of steel flats that connects off cables that attach to the roof is used to suspend a glass walkway. Horizontal bracing is provided by stainless steel tensioning bars between the frame uprights and the steel-glass fixings, which include joints to minimize stress concentrations.
The Helix Bridge is a landmark pedestrian bridge in Singapore, comprising a walkway surrounded by opposing double helix structures made from stainless steel. The design was inspired by the geometric helicoidal arrangement of DNA, which is seen as a symbol of continuity and renewal. The 280 m long bridge is the first double-helix bridge in the world and forms part of a 3.5 km continuous waterfront promenade, linking the Marina Centre, the waterfront area and a large casino/hotel resort. It is a very lightweight structure built almost entirely using duplex stainless steel.
This resource is a case study on the stainless steel exterior found on the Cheung Kong Centre in Hong Kong, built in 1999. The structure is located less than 1.6km from the harbor. Therefore it is exposed to sea salt in the air and rain, making the area highly corrosive. EN grade 1.4401 (type 316) was used for the wall panels with a fine No. 4 finish in order to ensure a unique look that possessed high durability. Rain and regular maintenance cleaning ensures contaminants and dirt is removed. The study contains information and images describing the stainless steel elements, design criteria and performance of the finished product since construction. Also presented is a stainless steel selection criteria which uses the case study as an example, it considers: environment, salt exposure, weather, design and maintenance.
Hot dog stands in several tourist hotspots of Vienna are clad with pattern-rolled stainless steel, grade 1.4401, which is electrolytically coloured.
A stainless steel lattice (grade 1.4301) serves as solar protection in summer. Clever detailing made it possible to achieve a curvature using exclusively straight components.
The case study “Law Court in Antwerp” describes a project by Richard Rogers Partnership with VK Studio and Ove Arup & Partners. In geometric terms, the roof cones over the courts are composed of four hyperbolic paraboloids, rising above a simple rectangular grid. The final layer is a continuously welded stainless steel standing seam skin of 0.4 or 0.5 mm. The stainless steel used is a chromium-nickel-molybdenum alloy 1.4404 (316L) with a glossy 2B mill finish.
This resource is a case study on the Jubilee Line Extension in London. It contains information, structural drawings and images that focus on the stainless steel element, describing the design criteria, the construction and the finished product after construction. Grade 1.4401 curved roofs integrate gutters, leaning pads, cable barriers and seat support brackets. Grade 1.4432 was used for the ticket hall façades and doors.
The case study is devoted to the spectacular Marqués de Riscal Vineyard in the Rioja region. Designed by architect Frank O Gehry, it involves a roof of grade 1.4401 stainless steel in 2B and 2D finishes. Using stainless steel rivets and polyamide insulation, care has been taken to prevent galvanic corrosion in contact with the supporting structure of galvanized steel.
Big Wood Secondary School in Nottingham is situated on the edge of Bestwood Country Park, with approximately 750 pupils aged between 11 and 16 currently on the roll. As part of the UK Government’s Building Schools for the Future initiative, the school is being completely rebuilt and the first phase of the £18 million development, the construction of three two-storey rectangular teaching blocks (about 40 m x 20 m in plan), was opened in the autumn of 2009. The buildings are brick-clad, structural steelwork frames, with composite floors. The brickwork is supported by a stainless steel masonry support system over the windows (some are in excess of 9 m wide). The support system provides a horizontal ledge for the masonry and is fixed to rectangular hollow edge beams.
A metalworking company at Gradignan, France, uses its own workshop to demonstrate its skills. On three sides, the building has a mobile envelope, consisting of large, swivelling stainless steel shutters aligned in front of a glass façade. It filters the daylight and provides extra security.
The case study describes a multi-purpose hall in the French town of Dole. The architectural concept involves highly reflective, mirror finished stainless steel façade, which reflects the historic city centre on the other side of the river Doubs. On the lateral sides, a lightweight, irregular tubular stainless steel structure serves as a support for climbing plants.
Beijing’s Poly Plaza is the new headquarters for China Poly, a state-owned organisation with diverse responsibilities in the defence trade, real estate, cultural industries and mineral exploration. In addition to the company’s headquarters, the 100,000 m2 building comprises office space, shops and restaurants. The structure is triangular in plan, with an L-shaped office block forming two sides and the third side formed by one of the world’s largest cable-net glass curtain walls. This creates a large atrium inside the structure, within which the 8 storey Poly Museum-‘The lantern’-is suspended. Stainless steel cables and castings support the cable-net wall. The support fittings were cast from high strength duplex stainless steel.
This resource is a collection of case studies demonstrating the use of stainless steel to rehabilitate old structures to enhance function and improve Stainless steel is proving to be one of the most versatile materials in these projects due to its broad range of alloys available. Numerous case studies are presented from a wide range of applications; Historic buildings such as: Archaeological sites in Turkey (EN 1.4571, frame) and bold, innovative solutions on more modern buildings such as: Office in Finland (1.4301, frame), Visitors centre in Vienna (1.4301, ceiling), Former bunker in Netherlands (1.4404, exterior). Each case study provides information and images describing firstly the original structure and then the particular detail on the stainless steel elements used in the rehabilitation, describing the design criteria, benefits and dimensions of the stainless steel element.
This resource is an article comparing stainless steel lighting poles installed in 1967 on New York and Florida beaches. It contains information and images that focus on the stainless steel elements, describing the design criteria and method, the construction and the performance of the finished product after construction. The process of grade selection is described in detail, considering the environment, salt exposure, weather, design and maintenance. Jones beach in New York used grade 1.4401 which has retained a smooth finish without any maintenance. Miami beach in Florida used grade 1.4301 which has not retained a smooth finish and has been badly stained. This shows the beneficial effect of Molybdenum in stainless steels.
This resource is a case study on the stainless steel railings and seating in the Gantry State Plaza along the East River which separates Long Island and Manhattan Island. The railings are directly exposed to salt water spray and splashing making it a highly corrosive location. EN grade 1.4401 (type 316) was used for both applications with a rougher glass bead blasted finish and despite this rougher finish, the stainless steel has remained attractive and corrosion free. EN grade 1.4462 (type 2205) was specified for the elements in the splash zone which initially suffered from localized corrosion and so were replaced. The study contains information and images describing the stainless steel element, design criteria and performance of the finished product since construction. Also presented is a stainless steel selection criteria which uses the case study as an example, it considers: environment, salt exposure, weather, design and maintenance.
Wellington is New Zealand's capital, cultural center and a haven for nature enthusiasts. Most of the city is located on a narrow 2km wide strip of land between a beautiful ocean harbor and rolling green hills. Completed in 1983, Wellington Convention Center adjoins the harbor. The architect for the building used concrete and Type 316 stainless steel for window mullions and curved roof panels.
The Parliament Library building in New Delhi, India, was completed in 2002. Given the significance of the building, the developers (Central Public Works Department) were keen to use the best materials possible, with the latest technologies. It was also imperative for the building to blend in with the surrounding environment. The result is a four-storey building, two floors of which are above ground. The main architectural feature is the twelve individual domes which make up the roof, each comprising different dimensions, designs and materials. The domes are both the highest and most recognisable elements of the building. Two of the domes are made from glass and stainless steel.
The Paul Klee Centre in Berne consists of a three wave-like structures. The steel ribs of the building's frame have been cut using CNC flame-cutting equipment and welded by hand. The roof surface is clad with 0.4 mm stainless steel sheet grade 1.4404.
This resource is series of case studies on stainless steel pedestrian bridges throughout the world. Each case study contains information, structural drawings and images that focus on the structural stainless steel elements. The design, grade and finish specification and construction method are also described. The bridges included are: Girder Bridge in Stockholm, Helical bridge in London, Stress-ribbon bridge in Via Mala Gorge, Arch bridge in York, Girder bridge in Chivari, Arch bridge in Terni, Cable stayed bridge in London, Arch bridge in Andresy and Trough bridge in Bilbao. These bridges demonstrate the use of grades 1.4462, 1.4401 and 1.4404 for both structural and non structural elements.
The façade is fully covered by movable, perforated panels, which also serve for daylight control. Made from matt-grey stainless steel, they blend well with the traditional urban environment. Inside, stainless steel gives the displays, ventilation grilles and stairs a touch of minimalist elegance.
Originally a 1970s residential building, the photography studio recently underwent a facelift. All non-structural parts of its facade were removed and the entire front remodelled in a single material: stainless steel. The new skin over the external cavity was made up of large-scale panels (grade EN 4404 / AISI 316L) with a brushed finish fixed to an 18-mm plywood frame. The perforated stainless steel sliding panels retain a visual connection with the outside while also protecting against direct sun.
This resource is an article comparing stainless steel handrails and street furniture in Pittsburgh and Chicago in locations that are exposed to deicing salt. It contains information and images that focus on the stainless steel elements, describing the design criteria and method, the construction and the performance of the finished product after construction. The process of grade selection is described, considering the environment, salt exposure, weather, design and maintenance. Chicago used grade 1.4401 stainless steel which has remained in pristine condition while Pittsburgh used grade 1.4301 which lacks molybdenum and has thus degraded.
Built from 1938 to 1941, the Progreso Pier and has been in continuous service for over 70 years without any major repair or significant maintenance activities. A combined environmental life cycle assessment and life cycle costing study was conducted on the pier to show environmental and economic benefits of using stainless steel rebar. The analysis which was conducted by Thinkstep considered the cradle-to-grave impacts of the stainless steel reinforced structure compared with the same structure, had it been reinforced with carbon steel. Engineering experts were engaged in order to design the alternative structure, accounting for differences in materials, maintenance, and estimated service life in the local marine environment.
VIVO's new headquarters in Rio de Janeiro was completed in 2005. The three-story building was designed by the Brazilian architecture firm Edo Rocha. Two different stainless steel finishes were used for the façade.
This resource is a case study on the San Nicola Stadium, Bari, built for the 1990 Football World Cup. It contains information, structural drawings and images that focus on the stainless steel elements, describing the design criteria, the construction and the finished product after construction. Grade AISI 316L (1.4404) stainless steel provides the support structure for a cantilevered roof that is reaches out over the seating area. Tubes, plates and tie bars of various thicknesses create the necessary support for series of Teflon coated fiberglass membranes that cover the roof. Stainless steel was chosen because of its low maintenance and lack of pre-treatment after fabrication that allowed a shortened construction period.
This resource is a case study on the stainless steel exterior found in the new South American headquarters in Sao Paulo, Brazil, built in 2002. The structure is located 80km from the coast but due to pollution emissions, the area is still considered severe for corrosion levels. EN grade 1.4401 (type 316) was used with 3 different smooth finishes: a black electrochemically coloured, a coined cambric finish and a polished finish. Regular washing is assumed. The study contains information and images describing the stainless steel element, design criteria and performance of the finished product since construction. Also presented is a stainless steel selection criteria which uses the case study as an example, it considers: environment, salt exposure, weather, design and maintenance.
The Schubert Club Band Shell is an outdoor venue for performing arts on Raspberry Island, in the middle of the Mississippi River in St Paul, Minnesota. It was commissioned by the Schubert Club and completed in 2002. The island had been neglected for many years before the Band Shell was built but now offers generous pedestrian walkways, unique and scenic vistas as well as a central location. The structure itself is saddle-shaped (anticlastic) and brings together concrete, wood, stainless steel and laminated glass to create a functional space. The design team developed a 7.6 m wide stainless steel lattice grid that spans 15.2 m between precast concrete abutments and covers a wood-framed stage. Acid-etched glass is offset from and supported by the lattice.
The case study focuses on the use of grade 1.4401 stainless steel which was used in external and internal applications in the Scottish Parliament. The roof and façade involve the double-lock standing seam method. This material is also used for the cladding of the projecting windows. Interior panels of perforated stainless steel were selected for the soffits. Stainless steel is also used for connecting solid oak beams in the structure.
Completed in 2006, this stainless steel cable stayed pedestrian footbridge spans 60 m over a busy motorway in the suburb of Ruffolo, Siena, in central Italy. The bridge girders and pylons are fabricated from a ‘lean’ duplex grade of stainless steel and it is one of the first times this grade has been used for a footbridge. The bridge has a striking appearance, is functionally efficient and cost-effective with a low life cycle cost.
This resource is a case study on stainless steel roofing in Singapore built in 1999. It contains information and images that focus on the stainless steel elements, describing the design criteria and method, the construction and the performance of the finished product after construction. The process of grade selection is discussed, considering environment, salt exposure, weather, design and maintenance. The Singapore Turf Club, which is in a coastal location and exposed to urban pollution, used grade 1.4401 and 2D finish for a curved roof, entrance canopy and walkway covers. The roof used 6m wide undulating sections and allows for maintenance walkways that double for gutters.
This resource is a case study on the Sony Centre in Potsdamer in Berlin. It contains information, structural drawings and images that focus on the stainless steel element, describing the design criteria, the construction and the finished product after construction. Within the large complex, a standing seam roof of matt, abrasion-blasted stainless steel (grade 1.4404) protects an old hotel. The IMAX cinema is clad with stainless steel mesh wire and bars. The recurring façade element throughout the complex is stainless steel sheet (grade 1.4401) which is finely polished and brushed. Narrow bands of stainless steel sheets separate the storey height glass panels and stainless steel fixing points create structural connections between the glazing and the uprights in the frame.
Stainless steel chimneys are increasingly seen as an architectural feature in both new building and renovation. They lend structure to facades and create lively material contrasts with wood, stone, plaster or glass. However, there are also many functional and economic reasons to specify stainless steel for internal or external chimneys. Solutions are available as rigid and flexible liners for refurbishment. Thermally insulated double-walled models ensure proper draught also for external installation. Triple-walled models do not only expel exhaust gases; they also suck in combustion air for ovens and boilers installed in modern fully airtight houses. A new Euro Inox publication provides an overview of the technical solutions, the spectrum of applications and provides some illustrative examples.
This resource is a series of case studies demonstrating good use of stainless steel as exterior cladding on structures all over the world. Examples have been chosen to illustrate the different application in different environments. The structures are categorized ‘Education and Research’, ‘Museums and Galleries’, ‘Administration and Commercial Buildings’ and ‘Industrial Structures’. Each case study provides information and images describing the structure with particular detail on the function, benefits and dimensions of the stainless steel element. Also available on CDROM.
A refurbishment and upgrading initiative in Munich
Stainless steel for public swimming baths
Public swimming pools are subject to a whole host of regulations and official guidelines. The legal requirements in terms of hygiene and safety must be met at the same time as keeping operating costs low and satisfying the ever-growing demands of pool users. Many older facilities fall short of today’s expectations and so in recent years there has been an increased focus on refurbishment and modernisation.
This resource is a technical guide for designers using stainless steel in drainage systems. The advantages and disadvantages of different grades of stainless steel in drainage systems are discussed. The surface finishes available are considered (milled, brushed, matt, tin coated, annealed and coloured). Finally the guidelines for working with stainless steel are described - the tools used, forming, soldering, bonding and fixings.
This resource is collection of case studies demonstrating the application of stainless steel for roofing. The case studies are classified under 8 categories - Museums, Education establishments, Churches, Residential buildings, Sports facilities, Catering facilities, Administration buildings and Industrial structures. Each case study describes the stainless steel element in the structure, noting the design criteria, product form and finish used. Structural drawings of the stainless steel element are also given.
This resource provides information on the design, construction and maintenance of stainless steel piping. ‘The Basics’ describes the mechanical and physical properties of stainless steel. The ‘Design’ section covers: the uses, capacities, specification, horizontal and vertical piping, expansion and contraction, water hammer and corrosion. The ‘Construction’ section covers the: planning, transport handling and storage, cutting, bending, junctions and welding, joints, supporting and anchoring of pipes, coating and testing. The ‘Maintenance’ section covers the methods used, items to inspect, water quality control, types of water system, boilers and supply systems. Finally the ‘Reference’ section provides details of related standards, further information about corrosion in stainless steel and examples to demonstrate common problems.
This resource provides a booklet of information tailored towards designers, plumbers, end-users and maintenance engineers interested in providing reliable potable water systems using stainless steel. Firstly the properties and corrosion resistance of stainless steels are described and shown to be significantly more resilient against high water velocities than copper piping. The techniques used to disinfect stainless steels are described. The tubing standards; BS 4127:1994 (light gauge steel) and BS 3605:1991 (austenitic steel) are considered. The types of stainless steel fittings available are presented and finally the fabrication and handling procedures for these fittings are described.
This publication is written for designers and owners of biogas plants and gives information on the design, fabrication and installation of stainless steel biodigester tanks. Much of the information in the brochure was developed during the EU’s Research Fund for Coal and Steel project: Innovative and competitive solutions using stainless steel and adhesive bonding in biogas production (BIOGASS). This was a three year research project which was completed in 2016. The project partners included stainless steel producers, research institutes, universities and a tank manufacturer. Through experimental tests, fi eld trials and numerical analysis, the project generated design guidance for a range of grades of stainless steels which are suitable for application in biodigesters.
This resource is a series of 15 case studies that demonstrate stainless steel exteriors. Each case study provides images with the grade, finish and construction details of the exterior stainless steel element. Building categories include hospital, science centre, museum, rail maintenance facility, space needle, sports complex, diplomatic chancery, bank, and union hall.
Stonecutters Bridge, Hong Kong, is a cable stayed structure with a total length of 1596 m and a main span of 1018 m. Opened at the end of 2009, the bridge crosses the Rambler Channel and is the main entrance to the busy Kwai Chung Container Port. It is visible from many parts of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon. The most striking features of the bridge are the twin tapered mono towers at each end supporting the 50 m wide deck. These tapered towers rise to 295 m above sea level; the lower sections are reinforced concrete while the upper 115 m are composite sections with an outer stainless steel skin and a reinforced concrete core.
Duplex stainless steels are increasingly used as structural materials in building and architecture because of their exceptional mechanical properties. Their room temperature yield strength in the solutiona nnealed condition is more than twice that of standard austenitic stainless steels not alloyed with nitrogen. Over the last few years, they have started playing an increasingly important role in the construction of bridges, wherever specific environmental conditions combine with the need for high load-bearing capability.
London is quite vulnerable to flooding and that threat has increased over time due to the continuous rise in the high water level over the centuries and the slow "tilting" of Britain. There are twice daily 6.4-meter tides and during severe storms there can be surge tides. The Thames River Barrier became operational in 1982, and it is expected to protect the city through 2030.
The first water desalination plant in the UK, the Thames Gateway Water Treatment in East London, opens in 2010. It will treat water from the brackish waters of the River Thames, producing up to 140 million litres of clean, fresh, drinking water each day during times of drought or extended periods of low rainfall, or to maintain supplies in the event of an incident at other water treatment facilities. Within the plant, saline river water passes through lamella clarifiers to remove solid particles. The clarifiers are large, open tanks containing a coarse filter media that is supported by a grillage of 78 stainless steel I-beams.
A waste incineration plant, called “energy recovery facility”, is wrapped in an undulating façade. For the cladding, the architects selected coloured stainless steel strips.
This resource is a case study of the Grande Arche Panoramic lifts at La Défense, near Paris. It contains information, structural drawings and images that focus on the stainless steel elements, describing the design criteria, the construction and the finished product after construction. The lift shaft comprises a stainless steel structural frame that is designed to allow maximum transparency. A duuplex grade of stainless steel was used to provide high strength and stiffness with low thermal expansion.
The Pavilion marks the new western entrance into Regent's Place, a 13-acre development in the heart of London which features retail, leisure and public spaces. It is a structure made entirely of stainless steel in which a field of vertical columns supports a roof canopy 8 m above street level. The pavilion is 20 m by 5 m in plan, with 258 highly slender rectangular hollow sections supporting a roof plane, reflecting sunlight during the day and projecting light at night from lights integrated into the paving. The structure was opened to the public in 2009 and won a 2010 Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) Award for architectural excellence.
This resource provides a synopsis of a research project carried out by the BSSA on the suitability of stainless steel tube and fitting products for internal building plumbing applications. The material, environmental, economic and aesthetic benefits of stainless steels in plumbing applications are outlined and the use of stainless steel plumbing in Scottish hospitals reviewed. European regulations are summarized, before a discussion on the market place perceptions of stainless steels and cost analysis is discussed. It is concluded that stainless steel is particularly suited to large-scale plumbing installations, such as hospitals, childrens and old peoples homes, prisons, schools and hotels, where health and safety are prime considerations.
Mirror-polished, angeled stainless steel windows in grade 1.4301 highlight the rectangular grid of the structural frame.