Online Information Centre for Stainless Steel in Construction
Case Studies > Facades and Roofs
This resource is a case study on the stainless steel exterior found on the Mapfre Office Tower in Barcelona, Spain, built in 1992 for the Olympics Games. The structure is located right on Barcelona’s coast meaning high levels of sea salt and moisture in the air make the area highly corrosive. Locally produced EN grade 1.4401 (type 316) was used together with high efficiency glass to create a distinctive look but also for durability. The study contains information and images describing on the stainless steel element, the design criteria and the performance of the finished product since construction. Also presented is a stainless steel selection criteria which uses the case study as an example, it considers: environment, salt exposure, weather, design and maintenance.
Designed by Coop Himmelb(l)au, the brand-experience and delivery centre “BMW Welt” involves a 16,000 m² roof entirely clad in stainless steel. The underside of the roof is made of 5,000 perforated stainless steel panels, each of them in a different size, which contribute to the impression of a “cloud roof”. Bead-blasted perforated stainless steel sheet provides solar shading.
This resource is series of case studies around the world of different stainless steel building envelopes (facades and roofs). It contains information, structural drawings and images that focus on the stainless steel elements. The design, grade and finish specification and construction method are also described. Examples are featured from residential, research, education, administration and commercial buildings and leisure centres. From this selection of buildings, the grades used are: EN 1.4401, 1.4404, 1.4306 and 1.4301.
This resource is a case study on two housing estates that were renovated with stamped stainless steel facade panels. It contains technical information, structural drawings and images that focus mainly on the stainless steel elements, describing the design criteria, the construction and the overall look after construction. In this project the panels were made to various lengths to accommodate the building variations. They demonstrate good insulation against noise, heat and cold and have aesthetically transformed the estates.
An irregular, dynamic pattern produces a cascading effect reminiscent of a waterfall. A new technique called fluid forming is applied, which leaves no drawing or tool marks on the 1 mm-thin sheet of stainless steel grade 1.4301.
16 artists’ studios at the University of Aberystwyth are clad with ultra-thin stainless steel sheet only 0.127 mm thick. The material was given crinckle-effect using a roller with large rubber knops. CFC-free froam on the inside adds to the structural stability of the cladding and provides thermal insulation.
This resource is a case study on the Erasmus Metro Station in Brussels. The study contains technical information, structural drawings and images that focus on the stainless steel elements, describing the design criteria and method, the construction and the finished product after construction. The station has a fiberglass membrane roof supported by stainless steel cables and fixings which connect to the primary steel structure. Stainless steel mesh (grade 1.4404) also forms the inward curving side panel façade and the station furniture.
Stainless steel contrasts with floor-to-ceiling glass panes in the partitions and wood in the ceiling. Walls are clad in mirror-polished 1 mm stainless steel sheet. In addition to its visual effect, chequered stainless steel floor plate (1.5 mm) also has outstanding anti-slip properties.
This resource is a case study on the stainless steel exterior found on the Cheung Kong Centre in Hong Kong, built in 1999. The structure is located less than 1.6km from the harbor. Therefore it is exposed to sea salt in the air and rain, making the area highly corrosive. EN grade 1.4401 (type 316) was used for the wall panels with a fine No. 4 finish in order to ensure a unique look that possessed high durability. Rain and regular maintenance cleaning ensures contaminants and dirt is removed. The study contains information and images describing the stainless steel elements, design criteria and performance of the finished product since construction. Also presented is a stainless steel selection criteria which uses the case study as an example, it considers: environment, salt exposure, weather, design and maintenance.
A stainless steel lattice (grade 1.4301) serves as solar protection in summer. Clever detailing made it possible to achieve a curvature using exclusively straight components.
The case study “Law Court in Antwerp” describes a project by Richard Rogers Partnership with VK Studio and Ove Arup & Partners. In geometric terms, the roof cones over the courts are composed of four hyperbolic paraboloids, rising above a simple rectangular grid. The final layer is a continuously welded stainless steel standing seam skin of 0.4 or 0.5 mm. The stainless steel used is a chromium-nickel-molybdenum alloy 1.4404 (316L) with a glossy 2B mill finish.
The case study is devoted to the spectacular Marqués de Riscal Vineyard in the Rioja region. Designed by architect Frank O Gehry, it involves a roof of grade 1.4401 stainless steel in 2B and 2D finishes. Using stainless steel rivets and polyamide insulation, care has been taken to prevent galvanic corrosion in contact with the supporting structure of galvanized steel.
A metalworking company at Gradignan, France, uses its own workshop to demonstrate its skills. On three sides, the building has a mobile envelope, consisting of large, swivelling stainless steel shutters aligned in front of a glass façade. It filters the daylight and provides extra security.
The case study describes a multi-purpose hall in the French town of Dole. The architectural concept involves highly reflective, mirror finished stainless steel façade, which reflects the historic city centre on the other side of the river Doubs. On the lateral sides, a lightweight, irregular tubular stainless steel structure serves as a support for climbing plants.
Wellington is New Zealand's capital, cultural center and a haven for nature enthusiasts. Most of the city is located on a narrow 2km wide strip of land between a beautiful ocean harbor and rolling green hills. Completed in 1983, Wellington Convention Center adjoins the harbor. The architect for the building used concrete and Type 316 stainless steel for window mullions and curved roof panels.
The façade is fully covered by movable, perforated panels, which also serve for daylight control. Made from matt-grey stainless steel, they blend well with the traditional urban environment. Inside, stainless steel gives the displays, ventilation grilles and stairs a touch of minimalist elegance.
Originally a 1970s residential building, the photography studio recently underwent a facelift. All non-structural parts of its facade were removed and the entire front remodelled in a single material: stainless steel. The new skin over the external cavity was made up of large-scale panels (grade EN 4404 / AISI 316L) with a brushed finish fixed to an 18-mm plywood frame. The perforated stainless steel sliding panels retain a visual connection with the outside while also protecting against direct sun.
VIVO's new headquarters in Rio de Janeiro was completed in 2005. The three-story building was designed by the Brazilian architecture firm Edo Rocha. Two different stainless steel finishes were used for the façade.
This resource is a case study on the stainless steel exterior found in the new South American headquarters in Sao Paulo, Brazil, built in 2002. The structure is located 80km from the coast but due to pollution emissions, the area is still considered severe for corrosion levels. EN grade 1.4401 (type 316) was used with 3 different smooth finishes: a black electrochemically coloured, a coined cambric finish and a polished finish. Regular washing is assumed. The study contains information and images describing the stainless steel element, design criteria and performance of the finished product since construction. Also presented is a stainless steel selection criteria which uses the case study as an example, it considers: environment, salt exposure, weather, design and maintenance.
The case study focuses on the use of grade 1.4401 stainless steel which was used in external and internal applications in the Scottish Parliament. The roof and façade involve the double-lock standing seam method. This material is also used for the cladding of the projecting windows. Interior panels of perforated stainless steel were selected for the soffits. Stainless steel is also used for connecting solid oak beams in the structure.
This resource is a case study on stainless steel roofing in Singapore built in 1999. It contains information and images that focus on the stainless steel elements, describing the design criteria and method, the construction and the performance of the finished product after construction. The process of grade selection is discussed, considering environment, salt exposure, weather, design and maintenance. The Singapore Turf Club, which is in a coastal location and exposed to urban pollution, used grade 1.4401 and 2D finish for a curved roof, entrance canopy and walkway covers. The roof used 6m wide undulating sections and allows for maintenance walkways that double for gutters.
This resource is a case study on the Sony Centre in Potsdamer in Berlin. It contains information, structural drawings and images that focus on the stainless steel element, describing the design criteria, the construction and the finished product after construction. Within the large complex, a standing seam roof of matt, abrasion-blasted stainless steel (grade 1.4404) protects an old hotel. The IMAX cinema is clad with stainless steel mesh wire and bars. The recurring façade element throughout the complex is stainless steel sheet (grade 1.4401) which is finely polished and brushed. Narrow bands of stainless steel sheets separate the storey height glass panels and stainless steel fixing points create structural connections between the glazing and the uprights in the frame.
Stainless steel chimneys are increasingly seen as an architectural feature in both new building and renovation. They lend structure to facades and create lively material contrasts with wood, stone, plaster or glass. However, there are also many functional and economic reasons to specify stainless steel for internal or external chimneys. Solutions are available as rigid and flexible liners for refurbishment. Thermally insulated double-walled models ensure proper draught also for external installation. Triple-walled models do not only expel exhaust gases; they also suck in combustion air for ovens and boilers installed in modern fully airtight houses. A new Euro Inox publication provides an overview of the technical solutions, the spectrum of applications and provides some illustrative examples.
This resource is a series of case studies demonstrating good use of stainless steel as exterior cladding on structures all over the world. Examples have been chosen to illustrate the different application in different environments. The structures are categorized ‘Education and Research’, ‘Museums and Galleries’, ‘Administration and Commercial Buildings’ and ‘Industrial Structures’. Each case study provides information and images describing the structure with particular detail on the function, benefits and dimensions of the stainless steel element. Also available on CDROM.
This resource is collection of case studies demonstrating the application of stainless steel for roofing. The case studies are classified under 8 categories - Museums, Education establishments, Churches, Residential buildings, Sports facilities, Catering facilities, Administration buildings and Industrial structures. Each case study describes the stainless steel element in the structure, noting the design criteria, product form and finish used. Structural drawings of the stainless steel element are also given.
This resource is a series of 15 case studies that demonstrate stainless steel exteriors. Each case study provides images with the grade, finish and construction details of the exterior stainless steel element. Building categories include hospital, science centre, museum, rail maintenance facility, space needle, sports complex, diplomatic chancery, bank, and union hall.
A waste incineration plant, called “energy recovery facility”, is wrapped in an undulating façade. For the cladding, the architects selected coloured stainless steel strips.